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Automated Ultrasonic Testing for Pipeline Girth Welds. E. A. Ginzel

Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction

1. History - Early Days
1.1 Early Ideas
1.2 The Introduction of Mechanised Welding
1.3 UT Adaptations to the Mechanised Welding
1.4 Probe Design Changes
1.5 Mechanised UT Enters the Computer Age
1.6 Standardising Concepts
References to Chapter 1

2. Zones-How to Keep Them Apart
2.1 Principles of the Zonal Technique
2.2 Beam Control
2.2.1 Beam Spot Size
2.2.2 Beam Angle 30
References to Chapter 2

3. Beam Angles-Designing a Technique
3.1 Defining Fusion Zones and Volumetric Zones
3.2 Volumetric Detection
3.3 Some Transverse Ideas
3.4 Adding TOFD
3.5 SMAW and SAW Needing Vertical Targets
References to Chapter 3

4. Calibration-How to Set Up the Targets
4.1 Block Drawings and What the Machinist Needs to Know
4.2 Acoustic Quality Check
4.3 Surface Condition
References to Chapter 4

5. System Requirements-Equipment and Displays
5.1 Scanner Head
5.2 Data Acquisition Units
5.3 Displays
5.4 Records
References to Chapter 5

6. Making a Good Calibration
6.1 A Review of Targets
6.1.1 Zonal Targets
6.1.2 Volumetric Targets
6.1.3 Transverse and TOFD Notches
6.1.4 Various Calibration Aspects
6.2 Limitations on Calibration Quality
6.3 Characteristics of a Good Calibration
References to Chapter 6

7. Project Preparation and Pre-Project Planning
References to Chapter 7

8. Qualification-Systems, Operators, and Techniques
8.1 What Is Required and Is It Reasonable?
8.1.1 Testing at Elevated Temperature
8.1.2 Repeatability with Guide Band Movement
8.1.3 Accuracy in Circumferential Positioning/Location
8.1.4 Repeatability with Scanner Orientation (Upside Down)
8.1.5 Detection Level on an Unwelded Bevel
8.1.6 Coupling Check-Alarm Levels Verified (TR and PE)
8.1.7 Repeatability with Scan Direction
8.1.8 Clearance Test
8.1.9 Probability of Detection and Sizing
8.1.10 Accuracy in Height and Length Sizing
8.1.11 Other Equipment Tests
8.2 Operator Qualifications
8.3 In Summary
References to Chapter 8

9. Interpretation
9.1 What Is Evaluated?
9.2 Evaluation Thresholds
9.3 Flaws
9.3.1 Misfire
9.3.2 Undercut
9.3.3 Shrinkage Cracks
9.3.4 Porosity
9.3.5 Cold Lap
9.4 Geometry
9.4.1 Root
9.4.2 Cap Geometry
9.5 False or Overtrace Signals. What are they?
9.6 Examples of AUT Indications
9.7 Flaws
9.7.1 Lack of Fusion Root
9.7.2 Lack of Fusion Midwall
9.7.3 Lack of Fusion Cap
9.7.4 Centreline Crack
9.7.5 Root Porosity
9.7.6 Fill Porosity
9.7.7 Burn Through
9.7.8 Geometry: High-Low
9.7.9 Cap Geometry
9.7.10 False Signals
9.8 Special Flaws
9.8.1 Transverse Cracks
9.8.2 Copper
9.8.3 General
9.9 What to Do with Volumetric and TOFD Data
9.10 Computer-Assisted Positioning
References to Chapter 9

10. Acceptance Criteria
10.1 Workmanship
10.1.1 API 1104
10.1.2 AS 2885.2
10.1.3 CSA Z662
10.1.4 ISO 13847
10.1.5 DNV OS F101
10.1.6 General Considerations in Workmanship Acceptance Criteria for AUT
10.2 ECA-Based Acceptance Criteria
10.2.1 The Principles of Engineering Critical Assessment
10.2.2 API and BS Rules
10.2.3 Generic Acceptance Criteria
References to Chapter 10

11. AUT Sizing and PODs
11.1 Sizing "Techniques"
11.2 Amplitude Techniques
11.2.1 Simple Zone Sizing
11.2.2 Amplitude Corrected Zone Sizing
11.2.3 Amplitude Corrected Zone Sizing with Overtrace Allowance
11.2.4 Amplitude Comparisons with Zone Characterisation
11.2.5 Beam Boundary by dB Drop
11.3 Temporal Techniques
11.3.1 TOFD
11.3.2 Backscatter
11.4 Amplitude Sizing Comparison
11.5 POD and POS
11.6 Statistical Techniques
11.7 Precision and Accuracy
11.8 Summary
References to Chapter 11

12. Great Expectations and Mythologies
12.1 Procedure Policies
12.2 Audit Guidelines
12.3 The Operator's Log
12.4 Wall Thickness Variation Effects
12.5 AUT Myths
References to Chapter 12

13. Applications
13.1 Pipeline Land Lay
13.2 Offshore Projects
13.3 Offshore Spoolbase
13.4 Dual-Product Longitudinal Seam
13.5 Non-Pipeline Applications of the Zonal Technique
13.6 Future of AUT
13.7 Phased Arrays
13.7.1 Seamless Pipe
13.7.2 Inspections on Thick Section Risers
13.7.3 1.5D Arrays for Improved Sizing in Risers and Tendons
13.7.4 Focusing for Small Diameter Pipes
13.7.5 Short Cutback
13.7.6 Clad Pipe
13.7.7 Portable Phased Array Units
13.8 Conclusions
References to Chapter 13

Appendix A: Beam Size Tables
Appendix B: Beam Size Approximations from Calibration Scans
Appendix C: Suggested Techniques
C.1 CRC Bevel
C.2 CRC Techniques
C.3 SMAW Single Vee Bevel of 60° (Manual Welding)
Appendix D: Statistical Concepts
D.1 Comparing Samples
D.2 The Significance of Significance
D.3 A Tail of a Curve
D.4 Probability
Bibliography of Appendix D: "Statistical Concepts"
Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations
List of Figures
List of Tables
Index

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